The strong winds are dangerous for the olive tree. The sea winds transport salt with results the dryness of the olive branches and the falling of the leaves. If the winds are very strong, they can brake and destroy the whole tree.
In the spring if the winds are warm, can prevent the germination and fruition, and can dry the biggest part of the leaves. The best way to protect the olive tree from the wind, is to choose the place of plantation and maintain the best shape by pruning it.
Freezing weather is another enemy for the olive tree and certainly the olive oil production. Its sensitiveness depends mainly on the tension and the duration of the frost, also on the age, the variety of the tree and the duration of the exposure on the freezing temperatures, which are turning the color of the olives to grey. The first frosts do not last long, so they don’t effect the leaves and the young shoots.
In the winter when the temperatures drop drastically to -8C the cold is very dangerous. If the temperature is dropping slowly, the tree has the time to adjust to the intense cold. The first symptoms of the damage from the cold, is the discoloration of the leaves. They take a bronzy color, followed by falling. The branches take a reddish color and slowly they die.
When the cold is continued, the damages are spreading in the big branches and the bark and both can get cracks. The lower part of the olive tree, very seldom gets attacked by the cold. From the cracks in the bark, fungus and bacteria gets in, which causes severe damages. The best thing to do after an intense cold, is to spray the tree with Vordigalios pulp.
A nitrogenous fertilizing, if its done early enough, helps. The attacked branches should be removed, because they are susceptible to parasites and illness.
To avoid these problems we should use olive trees that are enduring to the cold weather.
Hail is another enemy of the olive tree, and depends on its size, time of falling and the intense of falling. It makes cracks on the olive branches and the olives. To avoid these consequences from the hail, spraying with blue-vitriol is recommended.
The abrupt temperature increases, result in arrhythmical metabolism of the leaves and branches of the olive tree. This happens when we have cold knights and hot days, or when the temperatures are low and the weather is rainy. In these cases, the productivity of carbohydrates is higher than normal and they appear usually in the morning hours, under the surface of the leaves. This kind of secretion attracts fungus, which prevents the functionality of the leaves.
Although the olive tree is adjusted to dry climates, moisture in the soil, especially in the summer, effects it. The germination and maturity slows down and continues with the falling of the fruit. If the drought continues, the olive fruit gets dehydrated, with results of low quality and low quantity olive oil, and extra virgin olive oil is not about to be produced. The irrigation prevents the consequences of the drought.
The good fertilization, the removal of the suckers in the summer and generally good cultivation, give enough water that the soil has available and helps the tree.